Rare Primary Care News

Disease Profile


Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.


US Estimated

Europe Estimated

Age of onset





Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease.


Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype.


dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.


recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder.


Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.


Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.


Not applicable


Other names (AKA)



Nervous System Diseases


Apraxia is a neurological disorder characterized by the inability to perform tasks or movements, despite having the desire and physical ability to perform them. It is caused by damage to the brain, especially the parietal lobe, and can arise from many diseases, tumors, a stroke, or traumatic brain injury. In some cases it is present from birth. There are several types of apraxia, which may occur alone or together. These include:[1][2]

  • Buccofacial or orofacial apraxia is the inability to carry out facial movements on demand. This may include licking the lips, sticking out the tongue, whistling, coughing, or winking.
  • Ideational apraxia is the inability to carryout learned, complex tasks with multiple, sequential movements. This may include dressing, eating, and bathing.
  • Ideomotor apraxia is the inability to perform a learned task (such as using a tool) or communicate using gestures (like waving good-bye).
  • Limb-kinetic apraxia is the inability to make fine, precise movements with an arm or leg. This may include buttoning a shirt or tying a shoe. 
  • Verbal apraxia is difficulty coordinating mouth and speech movements. Verbal apraxia may be acquired or present from birth.
  • Constructional apraxia is the inability to copy, draw, or construct simple figures.
  • Oculomotor apraxia is difficulty moving the eyes on command.

Treatment of apraxia may include physical, speech, or occupational therapy. If apraxia occurs as a symptom of another disorder, treatment should be directed to the underlying condition.[1][2]

Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

Where to Start

  • MedlinePlus was designed by the National Library of Medicine to help you research your health questions, and it provides more information about this topic.
  • The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) collects and disseminates research information related to neurological disorders. Click on the link to view information on this topic.

In-Depth Information

  • Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
  • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.


  1. NINDS Apraxia Information Page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). September 11, 2015; https://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/apraxia/apraxia.htm. Accessed 1/4/2016.
  2. Campellone JV, Zieve D. Apraxia. MedlinePlus. July 27, 2014; https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/007472.htm. Accessed 1/4/2016.