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Disease Profile

Renal agenesis

Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.


US Estimated

Europe Estimated

Age of onset



Q60.0 Q60.1 Q60.2


Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease.


Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype.


dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.


recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder.


Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.


Not applicable



Congenital and Genetic Diseases; Kidney and Urinary Diseases


The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs.

Orpha Number: 411709

Renal agenesis (RA) is a form of renal tract malformation characterized by the complete absence of development of one or both kidneys (unilateral RA or bilateral RA respectively; see these terms), accompanied by absent ureter(s).

The annual incidence of RA is estimated at around 1/2,000. Fetal prevalence of bilateral renal agenesis in Europe has been estimated at 1/8,500.

Clinical description
Most patients with unilateral RA are asymptomatic if the other kidney is fully functional and the disease is commonly detected as a chance observation. However, hypertension, proteinuria and renal failure may develop in the long run (20-50% of cases at the age of 30). Unilateral RA is occasionally associated with genital tract anomalies on the same side (e.g. seminal vesicle hypoplasia and absence of the vas deferens), cardiac anomalies (such as atrial or ventricular septal defects) and/or gastrointestinal anomalies (such as anal atresia). Bilateral RA is characterized by complete absence of kidney development, absent ureters and subsequent absence of fetal renal function resulting in Potter sequence with pulmonary hypoplasia related to oligohydramnios, which is fatal shortly after birth.

Renal agenesis results from a developmental failure of the ureteric bud and the metanephric mesenchyme. Unilateral renal agenesis can be caused by mutations in many genes, such as RET (10q11.2), BMP4 (14q22-q23), FRAS1 (4q21.21), FREM1 (9p22.3), or UPK3A (22q13.31). A few cases of bilateral renal agenesis have been found to be caused by mutations in the RET, FGF20 (8p22) or ITGA8 (10p13) genes. Maternal diabetes mellitus or use of specific drugs during pregnancy can also result in renal agenesis.

Genetic counseling
In familial cases, unilateral RA is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner with incomplete penetrance. Bilateral RA is inherited autosomal recessively.

Visit the Orphanet disease page for more resources.


This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
30%-79% of people have these symptoms
Unilateral renal agenesis
Absent kidney on one side
Missing one kidney
Single kidney

[ more ]

Ureteral agenesis
5%-29% of people have these symptoms
Absent vas deferens
Anal atresia
Absent anus
Aplasia/Hypoplasia of the bladder
Absent/small bladder
Absent/underdeveloped bladder

[ more ]

Aplasia/hypoplasia of the uterus
Absent/small uterus
Absent/underdeveloped uterus

[ more ]

Bilateral renal agenesis
Low levels of amniotic fluid
Potter facies
High urine protein levels
Protein in urine

[ more ]

Pulmonary hypoplasia
Small lung
Underdeveloped lung

[ more ]

Renal insufficiency
Renal failure
Renal failure in adulthood

[ more ]

Talipes equinovarus
Club feet
Club foot

[ more ]

Ventricular septal defect
Hole in heart wall separating two lower heart chambers

Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

In-Depth Information

  • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
  • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Renal agenesis. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.